About three weeks ago, a new “standard” for Content Management Interoperability Services (CMIS) was announced by EMC, IBM, and Microsoft with the usual fanfare of being the best thing since sliced bread and compliant with the latest buzzwords. One of those buzzwords, REST (as in Representational State Transfer), happens to be defined by my dissertation. I am getting tired of big companies making idiotic claims about REST and their so-called RESTful architectures. The only similarity between CMIS and REST is that they both have four-letter acronyms.
Note to our technology industry rags: A standard is an approved measure against which multiple independent organizations have agreed (by choice or by force) to have their products tested for compliance. A standards-effort is what we call a proposal when it is being actively worked on by some standards development organization. CMIS, on the other hand, is just a vendor proposal that is being submitted to OASIS. It only becomes a standards-effort once the OASIS members agree to host it, which shouldn’t be a problem given the pay-to-play nature of OASIS, and might become a standard if the final specification is approved.
CMIS is a thin veneer on RDBMS-based data repositories that provides a data model for document-like objects within filesystem-like folders, basic file versioning, and access via SQL queries and local object references. It is exactly the kind of document model one would expect within a legacy document management system that is backed by a large relational database and authored via Microsoft Office applications. No surprise, given the sponsors, and there are plenty of good reasons why folks would want to support such data models. For the interface, CMIS includes both a Web Services SOAP/WSDL protocol binding, tightly coupled to the data model, and a REST protocol binding, which also happens to be tightly coupled to the data model.
REST is an architectural style, not a protocol, and thus announcing it as a protocol binding is absurdly ignorant behavior for a group of technology companies. The RESTish protocol binding actually being proposed by CMIS is AtomPub, or at least it would be if not for the huge number of unnecessary protocol extensions that tunnel the Web Services interface through fake-Atom and fake-HTTP. The examples assume a single-script gateway that accepts methods in query strings with CMIS-* header fields to bind search scope, just like SOAP envelopes and bodies are used to tunnel object-specific protocols over HTTP. Are there any REST constraints that this binding doesn’t violate?
The SOAP protocol binding, in contrast, is more direct: half the number of pages and defined with WSDL and XSD. It is obvious that the SOAP binding was designed first and the AtomPub binding added for marketing reasons. I don’t think much of SOAP bindings, in general, but at least this one is consistent with the limited data model, the design of other SOAP-based services, and the goal of providing a control-oriented API for document management.
CMIS is a classic example of what happens when a control-oriented interface is slapped onto an HTTP-based protocol instead of redesigning the interface to be data-oriented. All of the lowest-common-denominator constraints of CMIS’ data model, which are necessary for the SOAP interface because its operations are object-specific, are completely unnecessary for an HTTP interface that is properly designed to be data-oriented. An HTTP interface doesn’t need to be limited to Atom feed formats for traversing folder hierarchies; hypertext is a lot more powerful than temporally-ordered query results. An HTTP interface doesn’t need to forbid the versioning of folders; hypertext can tell the client what operations are allowed on each folder. An HTTP interface doesn’t need a special query media type that (insanely) consists of a raw SQL statement embedded in XML sugar coating; any HTTP resource can be a stored procedure and any hypertext response can contain a list of results. An HTTP interface doesn’t need to traverse folders or query databases in order to access an object summary that points to a content stream that might then be downloaded; hypertext allows each object to be identified by a URI and manipulated independent of the discovery process.
CMIS is a Web Services interface for document management. It should be renamed WS-DMS and tossed on the same pile of other specs from that genre. WebDAV is a far more capable interface that has already been standardized to provide document-level write-access and versioning over HTTP. WebDAV isn’t very RESTful either, because it relies on folder operations instead of hypertext, but at least the WebDAV interface doesn’t interfere with the read-only side of HTTP, WebDAV is already supported by authoring tools with filesystem semantics, and Microsoft has already deployed hundreds of proprietary extensions to WebDAV within its Exchange and SharePoint server products. For that matter, CMIS would be a lot more interesting if it were designed as an extension to CIFS instead of HTTP or SOAP.
My bet is that the document repository vendors will continue to focus on making their own native HTTP interfaces more efficient, since that is how customers will evaluate their performance when integrated within heterogeneous architectures. At best, CMIS will become another method for data migration away from Web Services and legacy repositories, which may be justification enough for implementation. However, they should stop calling their AtomPub derivative a REST binding. Even if they manage to redesign the HTTP interface during the standards process, it will still only be an HTTP binding and only one part of an overall application architecture that could be called RESTful.